macOS Recovery (often referred to as Mac Recovery Mode) was introduced back in 2010 with OS X 10.7 Lion. This Recovery HD partition contains the latest version of the macOS you installed on your Mac and makes it possible to troubleshoot issues with your Mac. It is a useful tool that the majority of Mac users will never need to use, unless one of the following applies:

How to start Mac in Recovery Mode

The most often used way to enter Recovery Mode is this:

  1. Click on Apple logo at the top left of the screen.
  2. Select Restart.
  3. Immediately hold down the Command and R keys until you see an Apple logo or spinning globe. You will see the spinning globe if the Mac is trying to start macOS Recovery via the internet because it is unable to start from the built-in recovery system.
  4. Eventually your Mac will show the Recovery Mode Utilities window with the following options:

However, there are a number of different key combinations you can use to boot in Recovery mode depending on what you want to do, we detail these below.

Which keys to use for macOS Recovery Mode

Depending on what you want to do with macOS Recovery there are a number of key combinations to use during start up:

Command + R

Use this if you want to install the latest version of macOS that you had installed on your Mac (it won’t install a newer version if you hadn’t upgraded). Note that if you're selling or giving away a Mac that is using OS X El Capitan or earlier you should also use Command + R - this will make sure that the installation isn't associated with your Apple ID.

Option/Alt + Command + R

Use this if you want to upgrade to the latest version of macOS that is compatible with your Mac.

Shift + Option + Command + R

This will install the version of macOS that came with your Mac, or the one closest to that version if it isn’t available as a download.

Mac Recovery Mode options

When you start up in Recovery Mode you will see the following options:

Restore from a Time Machine backup

If you have a Time Machine backup this is an easy way to restore your system

Reinstall macOS

This will allow you to reinstall macOS (the version will depend on the key combination used above)

Get Help Online

To access Apple's support web pages. This gives you access to Safari so you can look for the help you need, but some browser features won’t be available.

Disk Utility

So you can verify and repair connected drives.

Select the option that applies to you and click Continue.

If you want to Restore from a Time Machine Backup, we have this tutorial.

If you want to Reinstall macOS, we have this tutorial.

If you want to repair or erase a disk click on Disk Utility, we have this tutorial on using Disk Utility.

Other options in Recovery Mode

There are also various options accessible from the menu at the top of the page via the File, Edit, Utilities and Window tabs. These include:

Terminal

Here's how to access Terminal in macOS Recovery:

  1. Start up in Recovery Mode as above.
  2. Click on Utilities in the menu bar.
  3. Click on Terminal.

You can read about how to use Terminal here.

Startup Security Utility

Startup Security Utility

This will allow you to make sure your Mac starts up from a trusted startup disk. Macs with the T2 chip have more options here including Firmware password protection and Secure Boot and External Boot options.

It also gives you access to Firmware password protection. A firmware password prevents users who don't have the password from starting up from any disk other than your designated startup disk. Not every Mac has this option. Click Turn On Firmware Password. Enter a password and click Set Password. Then quit and go to Apple > Restart.

Network Utility

The Network Utility app gives you access to tools and information that can help you with problems with your network connections. Read more about fixing network problems here. Click on Network Utility option if you want to test ping on your Mac (we have a guide to testing Ping on a Mac here).

What to do if macOS Recovery doesn’t work

If you can’t start up in macOS Recovery, you could try forcing it to boot in macOS Recovery over the Internet. Here’s how to do that:

  • Hold down Option/Alt-Command-R or Shift-Option/Alt-Command-R at startup to force macOS Recovery to boot over the Internet.

We have more tips for booting without a Recovery partition here.

If you still can’t boot then you could try booting via an external Mac startup disk - here’s how to do that.