Managing passwords with keychain access
In the innocent days of our computing youth, many of us had to memorise just one password – the one we used to send and retrieve our email over a glacially slow dial-up connection. User-account passwords? For geeks. Shopping-site passwords? What shopping sites? iTunes Store? App Store? Didn’t exist.
In what may seem like a giant step backwards, we now juggle dozens of passwords. Fortunately, our Macs can store those passwords and, in many cases, automatically fill them in when needed. But there’s more to know about passwords and the Mac’s ability to store them. Here’s a quick guide to what you can do with OS X’s passwords.
Visit Apple’s password management app when you want to view, change, or manage your passwords.
Keychains Are Key
Ever since Mac OS 8.6, the Mac has managed passwords with Keychain, Apple’s password-management system. The Keychain Access application (/Applications/Utilities) is the front-end to that system. It stores a wide range of items – including passwords for email, websites, servers, network shares, Wi-Fi networks and encrypted disk images. Whenever you save a password, it’s stored in the Mac’s keychain.
The Mac places its various keychain files in multiple locations: /System/Library/Keychains; /Library/Keychains; and youruserfolder/Library/Keychains. Thankfully, the contents of these different keychain files are combined into Keychain Access, so don’t worry about where they are.
Launch Keychain Access; the window is divided into three panes. The top-left pane lists keychains that are accessible to you. Below that is the Category pane, where you can view things stored in the keychain – passwords, secure notes, certificates associated with your account, encryption keys, and certificates used broadly by your Mac.
The largest pane, to the right, displays the contents of selected category items – for example, all the items that have a password associated with them. Except in the case of certificates, you can double-click on one of these items to open a window where you can view the item’s attributes – name, kind, associated account, location (a website or network address) – as well as its access control (meaning the applications and services that are allowed to access the item).
Double-click an item in Keychain Access, and you’ll get a window that shows its attributes.
If you want to retrieve a forgotten password, go to Keychain Access. To learn the identity of a password, select All Items or Passwords in the Category pane, find the item that you want the password for, and double-click it.
In the resulting window, enable the Show Password option. You’ll be prompted for the password for the login keychain. Enter that and click Allow, and the password will appear in the Password field.
Change the Login Keychain’s Password
When you first set up a user account, its login password is also assigned to the login keychain. So you can simply enter the password you use with your account to uncover a keychain item’s secrets.
This is also a flaw though, as anyone who knows your account’s password can access the items in this keychain and discover your other passwords. You can, however, change the password for the login keychain.
In Keychain Access, select the login keychain and choose Edit → Change Password For Keychain “login”. You’ll be prompted to enter your current password, then to enter and verify a new password. Do this, log out of your account and then back in; when the Mac needs to use one of the passwords stored in the login keychain, you’ll be prompted to enter it.
Autolock the Keychain
By default, once you’ve logged in, your keychain will be unlocked, which isn’t terribly secure. You can add a level of security that auto-locks your keychain. To do that, launch Keychain Access, select your login keychain, and choose Edit → Change Settings for Keychain login.
The sheet that appears shows two options: ‘Lock After X Minutes of Inactivity’ and ‘Lock When Sleeping’. If you choose the first option and configure it to read something like 5 minutes, your keychain will automatically lock if it hasn’t been accessed in the previous five minutes. If an application needs access to your keychain after that time limit has expired, you’ll be prompted for your login keychain password. If you enable the Lock When Sleeping option, your keychain will lock when your Mac goes to sleep.
If you forget your login keychain’s password, delete the old keychain and create a new one.
If You Forget
You’ve changed the login keychain’s password and forgotten the new password. Is there any hope? No. Apple uses the Triple Digital Encryption Security standard to secure the keychain. You’ll have to start again. Remove the old login keychain from Keychain Access and create a new one: In the Finder, select Go → Go to Folder, and enter youruserfolder/Library/Keychains. A Keychains folder containing your keychains will open. Find the login.keychain file, and drag it to a safe place on your Mac.
Launch Keychain Access and select the login item that appears in the Keychains pane. It appears as an empty box, indicating it’s missing from the Keychains folder. Choose File → Delete Keychain “login”. In the resulting sheet, click Delete References.
Now choose File → New Keychain. In the resulting Save dialog box, name the new keychain login and save it to the default location (your account’s Keychains folder). You’ll be prompted to create and verify a password for this keychain. The passwords you add will now appear in this keychain. You must re-enter passwords stored in the old keychain when prompted.
Share Your Login Keychain
If you have multiple Macs, you may find it convenient for each computer to have access to the same keychain. First, make a copy of the login.keychain file inside the Keychains folder on the Mac that has the most complete set of passwords, and copy it to your other Macs. Remove the login.keychain file from each Mac’s Keychains folder and put it in a safe place.
Place the copied login keychain file in the user’s Keychains folder. Log out and then back in. If the login password on the Mac you’re currently using is different from the one on this master Mac, you’ll receive a prompt asking you to provide the login keychain’s password. Once you enter it, you should have access to the same passwords as the master Mac.